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Pest Identification from McDonald Pest Control

Flies

American Horse FlyHorse Fly

Insects in the order Diptera, family Tabanidae, are commonly called horse flies, and sometimes also forest flies or deer flies. The former, however, can also refer to Hippoboscidae, and the latter refers specifically to the horse-fly genus Chrysops. Often considered pests for the bites that many inflict, they are among the world’s largest true flies. They are known to be extremely noisy during flight. They are also important pollinators of flowers, especially in South Africa. Tabanids occur worldwide, being absent only at extreme northern and southern latitudes. Flies of this type are among those known sometimes as gadflies, zimbs or clegs. In Australia, they are known as “march flies”; elsewhere this term refers to the unrelated dipteran family Bibionidae.

There are approximately 3,000 species of horse flies known worldwide, 350 of which are found in North America. At least three subfamilies are recognized:

  • Chrysopsinae
  • Pangoniinae
  • Tabaninae
  • the genus Zophina is of uncertain placement, though it has been classified among the Pangoniinae

Two well-known types are the common horse flies, genus Tabanus Linnaeus, 1758 and the deer flies, genus Chrysops Meigen, 1802 also known as banded horse flies because of their coloring. Both these genera give their names to subfamilies. The “Blue Tail Fly” in the eponymous song was probably a tabanid common to the southeastern United States.

All of the above information came from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Black FlyBlack Fly

A black fly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder. They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae. There are over 1,800 known species of black flies (of which 11 are extinct). Most species belong to the immense genus Simulium. Most black flies gain nourishment by feeding on the blood of other animals, although the males feed mainly on nectar. They are usually small, black or gray, with short legs, and antennae. They are a common nuisance for humans, and many U.S. states have programs to suppress the black fly population. They spread several diseases, including river blindness in Africa (Simulium damnosum and S. neavei) and the Americas (Simulium callidum and S. metallicum in Central America, S. ochraceum in Central and South America).

Eggs are laid in running water, and the larvae attach themselves to rocks. Breeding success is highly sensitive to water pollution. The larvae use tiny hooks at the end of the abdomen to hold on to the substrate, using silk hold-fasts and threads to move or hold their place. They have fold-able fans surrounding their mouths. The fans expand when feeding, catching passing debris (small organic particles, algae, and bacteria). The larva scrapes the fan’s catch into its mouth every few seconds. Black flies depend on habitats to bring food to them. They will pupate under water and then emerge in a bubble of air as flying adults. They are often preyed upon by trout during emergence.

All of the above information came from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Blow FlyBlow Fly

Blow-flies (commonly known as carrion flies, bluebottles, greenbottles or cluster flies) are insects in the Order Diptera, family Calliphoridae. The family is known to be non-monophyletic, but much remains disputed regarding proper treatment of the constituent units, some of which are occasionally accorded family status (e.g., Bengaliidae, Helicoboscidae, Polleniidae, Rhiniidae).

The name blow-fly comes from an older English term for meat that had eggs laid on it, which was said to be fly blown. The first known association of the term “blow” with flies appears in the plays of William Shakespeare: Love’s Labour’s Lost, The Tempest, and Antony and Cleopatra.

Most species of blowflies studied thus far are anautogenous; a female requires a substantial amount of protein to develop mature eggs within her ovaries (about 800 µg per pair of ovaries in Phormia regina). The current theory is that females visit carrion both for protein and egg laying, but this remains to be proven. Blow-fly eggs, usually yellowish or white in color, are approximately 1.5 mm x 0.4 mm, and, when laid, look like rice balls. While the female blow-fly typically lays 150-200 eggs per batch, she is usually iteroparous, laying around 2,000 eggs during the course of her life. The sex ratio of blowfly eggs is usually 50:50, but one interesting exception is currently documented in the literature. Females from two species of the genus Chrysomya (C. rufifacies and C. albiceps) are either arrhenogenic (laying only male offspring) or thelygenic (laying only female offspring).

Hatching from an egg to the first larval stage takes about 8 hours to one day. Larvae have three stages of development (called instars); each stage is separated by a molting event.The instars are separable by examining the posterior spiracles, or openings to the breathing system. The larvae use proteolytic enzymes in their excreta (as well as mechanical grinding by mouth hooks) to break down proteins on the livestock or corpse they are feeding on. Blowflies are poikilothermic, which is to say that the rate at which they grow and develop is highly dependent on temperature and species. Under room temperature (about 30 degrees Celsius) the black blowfly Phormia regina can go from egg to pupa in 150-266 hours (6 to 11 days). When the third stage is complete the pupa will leave the corpse and burrow into the ground, emerging as an adult 7 to 14 days later.

All of the above information came from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cluster FlyCluster Fly

The cluster flies are the genus Pollenia in the blowfly family Calliphoridae. Unlike more familiar blowflies such as the bluebottle genus Phormia, they do not present a health hazard because they do not lay eggs in human food. They are strictly parasitic on earthworms; the females lay their eggs near earthworm burrows, and the larvae then infest the worms. However, the flies are a nuisance because when the adults emerge in the late summer or autumn they enter houses to hibernate, often in large numbers; they are difficult to eradicate because they favour inaccessible spaces such as roof and wall cavities. They are often seen on windows of little-used rooms. They are also sometimes known as attic flies.

The typical cluster fly Pollenia rudis is about 7 mm long and can be recognised by distinct lines or stripes behind the head, short golden-coloured hairs on the thorax, and irregular light and dark gray areas on the abdomen. Cluster flies are typically slow moving.

Cluster flies have a widespread distribution. Six species are found in Britain and thirty one in Europe. Pollenia species are also and numerous in Australia and New Zealand (over 30 spp); they are a common pest in North America. P. rudis has spread widely in association with humans.

All of the above information came from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

House FlyHouse Fly

The housefly (also house fly, house-fly or common housefly), Musca domestica, is the most common of all flies found in homes, and indeed one of the most widely distributed insects, found all over the world; it is often considered a pest that can carry serious diseases.

Even though the order of flies (Diptera) is much older, true houseflies are believed to have evolved in the beginning of the Cenozoic era, some 65 million years ago.[6] House flies feed on liquid or semi-liquid substances beside solid material which has been softened by saliva or vomit. Because of their high intake of food, they deposit feces constantly, one of the factors that makes the insect a dangerous carrier of pathogens. Although they are domestic flies, usually confined to the human habitations, they can fly for several miles from the breeding place. They are active only in daytime and rest at night e.g. at the corners of rooms, ceiling hangings, etc.

All of the above information came from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

 

 

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